Among the various metalworking processes, sheet metal bending allows to shape surfaces giving standard or customized shapes.
Sheet metal bending: tools and technical knowledge for deforming metal materials
The shaping of the sheets is carried out by a bending machine, managed by a numerical control which, depending on the prism opposite the blade, the thickness and the hardness/quality of the material used, defines the pressure values of the blade descent in order to obtain the right degrees of bending.
The blades and prisms are interchangeable with each other and of different shapes to obtain cutting and bending of sheet metal of different shape and inclination. By means of stoppers or supports generally behind the machine, each piece is positioned so that the upper blade lies and bends the material to be processed exactly on a pre-established line.
In this way it is possible to obtain boxes formed by folds at different angles according to the desired result, thus avoiding unnecessary and expensive welding.
Stamping is another methodology in pressure sheet metal deformation.
It is used especially in the automotive sector and on very low thicknesses. It consists in funneling/deforming at high pressure a very soft soft soft iron sheet between two male/female moulds that give in a single moulding all the necessary folds, bends and edgings to give extraordinary rigidity and non-deformability to the piece.
In order to successfully carry out sheet metal bending work you need not only a powerful machine but also a deep knowledge of the metal you are working with.
The materials used in sheet metal bending are all those where it is possible to obtain deformations without compromising the structure and homogeneity of the final product.
Therefore it is important to know well the reaction of the metal that is subjected to the bending deformation process, as it is fundamental to know the direction of rolling of the fibres on the piece, as a parallel bending to this direction would cause cracks and splits at the bending point.
Another factor to be taken into consideration is the springback: after bending, although for minimum values, the metal will tend to return to the original stage.